In 1840 the first sewing machines had already made their appearance, making a significant contribution to the manufacture of crinkles, flounces, insertions, and other gaskets. In 1858 the English couturier Charles Frederick Worth (October 13, 1825 - March 10, 1895) opens his dressmaking establishment in Paris, to be patronized by the French Empress Eugénie and after by many titled, rich and famous women: Cora Pearl, Pauline de Metternich, and Sarah Bernhardt. Worth remodels the woman's body and the female fashion's silhouette, removing excessive ruffles and frills and using rich fabrics in simple outlines. He is the first couturier or dressmaker to be considered an artist rather than an artisan. Here we have a 1852 model with pagoda sleeves and a bodice that displays a false opened jacket bordered with pleated ribbons. Under the bodice a smooth muslin shirt with wide sleeves gathered at the frill is to be worn. The skirt with a little train is generously pleated at the waist. To create the crinoline I suggest you carefully examine period reproductions (such as those shown among the images), and then try to reproduce the same cage shape, using flexible iron strips lined with heavy fabric.